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作者: 来源: 日期:2016/10/10 8:03:35

Emerging markets match the west on gender parity





Women in some developing economies are joining the top ranks of business management at the same pace as those in western countries.



This is particularly true in the largest emerging markets, says Saadia Zahidi, head of gender and employment initiatives at the World Economic Forum. The body’s annual Global Gender Gap Index uses economic, educational, health and political indicators to rank 145 economies on how well they are using their female talent pool.

世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)的性别和就业计划主管萨阿迪亚•扎赫迪(Saadia Zahidi)表示,在几个最大的新兴市场尤其如此。该组织的年度全球性别差距指数(Global Gender Gap Index)采用经济、教育、健康和政治等方面指标,对145个经济体进行排名,以评估它们利用女性人才储备的情况。


You have a group of highly skilled women in the higher and middle income brackets who are doing incredibly well and in many cases better in terms of the gender gap and leadership than in [some] developed countries,” says Ms Zahidi.

扎赫迪表示:“一些处于较高和中等收入阶层、掌握高等技能的女性表现非常好,在很多情况下,从性别差距和领导能力方面来讲都好于(一些)发达国家。” 广州经济翻译公司。


Notable examples include Somruedee Chaimongkol, chief executive of Thailand’s Banpu, one of Asia’s largest energy companies, and Siza Mzimela, a former South African Airways chief executive who now owns her own airline.

突出的例子包括亚洲最大能源公司之一泰国万浦集团(Banpu)首席执行官Somruedee Chaimongkol以及南非航空(South African Airways)前首席执行官、如今拥有自己的航空公司的西扎•姆兹米拉(Siza Mzimela)


Ms Zahidi says that with 21 per cent of senior company positions held by women, China’s proportion is slightly higher than the US’s 20 per cent.



In some places, legislative changes have helped. Countries such as Kenya, India and Malaysia have introduced quotas for women on corporate boards.



In economies where many businesses are family-owned, it is becoming more acceptable for daughters to take up the reins when leadership is passed to the next generation.



A key reason for the growing success of businesswomen in emerging markets is the increased educational opportunity for women, at least those who can afford a university education. In Asia, the number of top universities is growing. In the 2016 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 289 Asian universities made it on to the list of 980 universities and 19 — including China’s Tsinghua — are in the ranking’s top 200.

新兴市场越来越多的商界女性取得成功的一个关键原因是女性受教育机会增加,至少对于那些能承担大学教育费用的女性而言。在亚洲,一流大学的数量不断增加。在2016年“泰晤士报高等教育世界大学排行榜”(Times Higher Education World University Rankings)上,有289所亚洲大学上榜,其中19所排在前200名之列,包括中国的清华大学(Tsinghua)。该榜单全部上榜大学为980所。广州经济翻译公司。


Meanwhile, more women in developing countries are seeking business training. “It depends on the region, but certainly in the last 10 years there’s been an increasing number of women in business education,” says Guy Pfeffermann, founder and chief executive of the Global Business School Network, a non-profit organisation that supports management education in developing countries.

与此同时,在发展中国家,更多的女性寻求接受商科教育。非盈利组织全球商学院网络(Global Business School Network)创始人兼首席执行官盖伊•普费弗曼(Guy Pfeffermann)表示:“各地区情况不同,但过去10年接受商科教育的女性数量确实不断增多。”该组织为发展中国家的管理学教育提供支持。


In recent decades, women have either achieved parity with men or are the majority in universities in emerging markets, says Ms Zahidi. “And we’re seeing the pay-off of that in mid-level and senior positions.”



Companies are playing a role, too. For example, Goldman Sachs’ 10,000 Women programme provides underserved women around the world with business and management education, as well as mentoring, networks and access to capital.

企业也在发挥作用。例如,高盛(Goldman Sachs)旨在支持1万名女性的“巾帼圆梦”计划(10000 Women)为全球各地资源匮乏的女性提供商业和管理教育、导师和人脉以及融资渠道。广州经济翻译公司。


Some companies in emerging markets are allocating investments to support women’s participation in business, just like their counterparts in rich countries, thanks to the growing recognition of the business benefits of gender diversity in the workplace.



Carmen Niethammer sees this at work among the clients of the International Finance Corporation, the World Bank’s private sector arm. “You have companies that are building childcare centres in rural areas where infrastructure is not there,” says Ms Niethammer, who is head of employment at the IFC’s Gender Secretariat.

卡门•尼特哈默尔(Carmen Niethammer)是世界银行(World Bank)旗下私营部门机构国际金融公司(IFC)性别秘书处的就业负责人,她看到这种做法在IFC的客户中发挥了作用。她表示:“一些公司正在基础设施薄弱的农村地区设立儿童看护中心。” 广州经济翻译公司。


She points to India, where companies are investing in childcare facilities. “The IT industry is at the forefront of this,” she says. Even so, when it comes to the inclusion of women among the ranks of senior executives, some regions are advancing faster than others, particularly when it comes to corporate governance.



In 2015, the African Development Bank (ADB) found that while the percentage of board directors who were women in African blue-chip companies (14 per cent) lagged behind the EU’s 18 per cent and the US Fortune 500’s 17 per cent, they did better than those in Asia-Pacific (10 per cent) and Latin America (6 per cent).



Meanwhile, at middle management level, it is Latin America where women are making most gains, says Ms Niethammer. “They have started to bring [women] into middle management,” she says.



In the 2016 When Women Thrive report from Mercer, the human resources consultancy, Latin America is the only region on track to achieve gender parity in professional-level positions and higher by 2025. It found women in the region were more likely than men to be promoted from every level, and twice as likely to be promoted from senior management.



Women in these markets still face obstacles to advancing their careers, including the need to care for children and other family members.



One of the biggest barriers to women participating in the paid economy is the amount of unpaid work they have to do,” says Radhika Balakrishnan, director of the Center for Women’s Global Leadership and professor of women’s and gender studies at Rutgers University. “However high up the ladder you are, that still lands on the woman.”

“阻碍女性参与到有偿经济中来的最大障碍之一是她们不得不做很多没有报酬的工作,”罗格斯大学(Rutgers University)女性全球领导力中心(Center for Womens Global Leadership)主任、从事女性和性别研究的拉蒂卡•巴拉克里什南教授(Radhika Balakrishnan)表示,“不管你登上了多高的阶梯,这些劳动仍然落在女性肩上。”