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作者: 来源: 日期:2016/9/5 9:20:20

G20 takes up global inequality challenge





Leaders of the world’s largest economies are on the defensive over slower growth, social inequity and corporate tax avoidance as they gather for their annual G20 summit, with many acknowledging that they have to work harder than ever before to sell the benefits of globalisation.



Many of our citizens are frustrated by the pace of globalisation and feel they are not experiencing the benefits of international trade,” Theresa May, the British prime minister, said at a briefing just ahead of the summit’s formal opening in Hangzhou in eastern China. “This is an issue we can’t afford to ignore.”

“我们的许多公民对全球化的步伐感到沮丧,觉得他们没有体验到国际贸易的好处,”英国首相特里萨•梅(Theresa May)在峰会在华东城市杭州正式开幕前的一个吹风会上表示,“这是我们不能忽视的一个问题。”


Mrs May was echoed by President Barack Obama of the US and his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, even as the leaders of the world’s two largest economies set a positive example for global co-operation with their joint ratification of the Paris accord on climate change.

梅的言论得到美国总统巴拉克•奥巴马(Barack Obama)和中国国家主席习近平的呼应,即便世界上最大两个经济体的领导人为全球合作树立了一个积极的榜样,正式联合批准了巴黎气候变化协定。广州会议翻译公司。


Here at the G20 we will continue to pursue an agenda of inclusive and sustainable growth,” Mr Obama said, acknowledging that “the international order is under strain”.



Mr Xi, whose country has arguably benefited more than any other from globalisation, struck a similarly cautious note in a weekend speech to business leaders. In China, he said, “we will make the pie bigger and make sure people get a fairer share of it”.



He also recognised global inequity, noting that the global gini coefficient — the standard measure of inequality — had raced past what he called its “alarm level” of 0.6 and now stood at 0.7. “We need to build a more inclusive world economy,” Mr Xi said.



The global economy is expected to grow at just 3.1 per cent this yeanfr, according to the International Monetary Fund’scurrent forecasts, as trade and investment flag.



We’ve thrown a number of things at [slowing growth] over the years,” said Angel Gurría, secretary-general of the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development. “[Traditional] cylinders of growth are chugging their way but they are moving half-speed at best.”

“这些年来我们对(增长放缓)采取了一些措施,”经合组织(OECD)秘书长安赫尔•古里亚(Angel Gurría)表示,“(传统的)增长汽缸正在运转,但它们充其量也只能达到正常速度的一半。”


In some cases we look like we’re walking backwards,” Mr Gurria added. “Trade should be growing at 6-7 per cent and it’s growing at 3.”

“在某些情况下,我们看起来像是在倒退,”古里亚补充说,“贸易应该达到6%7%的增速,但现在只有3%。” 广州会议翻译公司。


One traditional engine, the Chinese economy, is growing at its slowest rate in a quarter century while Brazil and Russia are both in their second year of recession. Speaking at the weekend, Chinese president Xi Jinping rejected criticism that his government had shied away from “bold” reform initiatives but emphasised that Beijing’s goal was now to ensure growth was “quality-based rather than quantity-based”.



As host of this year’s G20 meetings, Mr Xi is eager to maintain a united front at the two-day summit.



But cracks were beginning to show even before the summit’s opening ceremony, with European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker challenging Mr Xi’s government to “show the responsibility that comes with greater economic power”.

但即使在峰会举行开幕式之前,裂缝就开始显现,欧盟委员会(European Commission)主席让-克洛德•容克(Jean-Claude Juncker)向习近平的政府发起挑战,要求后者“展示出伴随更大经济实力的负责”。广州会议翻译公司。


EU and US politicians have been especially critical of overcapacity in China’s steel sector, which they blame for a surge in cheap exportsthat have allegedly “distorted” global commodity markets. “The summit must urgently find solutions to the problems facing the global steel industry,” Mr Juncker said. “I am determined to defend the interests of the EU steel industry . . . This is a global problem with a specific Chinese dimension.”



There was also tension between the US and EU over Brussels’ ruling last week that a decades-old tax agreement between Ireland and Apple violated the bloc’s ban on “state aid” for companies. A Apple and US officials have suggested that the ruling by EU competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager unfairly targeted American companies – a suggestion that drew a sharp rebuke from EU officials.

美国和欧盟之间围绕布鲁塞尔方面上周的裁决也存在关系紧张;那项裁决认定爱尔兰和苹果(Apple)之间延续了几十年的税收协定违反了有关企业不能获得“国家援助”的欧盟禁令。苹果和美国官员提出,欧盟竞争专员玛格丽特•维斯特格(Margrethe Vestager)作出的这项裁决不公平地针对美国企业;这种说法招致欧盟官员的尖锐驳斥。


But Mr Juncker defended the decision, arguing that such schemes had further undermined popular perceptions of globalisation. “Tax authorities cannot give benefits to some companies and not to others,” he said.“This was not a decision against the US.”