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广州医学翻译公司:低成本也能预防非传染疾病

作者: 来源: 日期:2016/8/31 9:01:10

The value of local lessons in tackling global killer diseases

低成本也能预防非传染疾病

 

广州医学翻译公司:布隆伯格:如果采取低廉措施帮助人们戒烟,健康饮食,并且有规律地锻炼,我们将可以挽救无数人的生命。

 

The outbreak of the Zika virus has become an issue of global concern. And rightly so: such communicable diseases must be aggressively tackled to prevent them becoming a pandemic.

寨卡病毒(Zika)的爆发已成为一项全球关注的大事。理应如此:这类可传染疾病必须大力解决,以阻止它大面积流行。广州医学翻译公司。

 

But there is another category of diseases that now represent the world’s leading cause of death, killing 43m people each year, including 16m who die before their 70th birthday. Over 80 per cent of those deaths occur in low- and middle-income nations. The diseases and injuries that cause these deaths also cost the world about $7tn between 2011 and 2025. Yet even though most of them are preventable, they receive 2 per cent of the world’s health funding.

然而,还有另一类疾病现在成为全球主要的死亡原因,每年有4300万人死于这类疾病,包括有1600万人在70岁以前死亡。超过80%的死亡病例出现在中低收入国家。此外,2011年至2025年,致死疾病和致命伤害在全球造成7万亿美元左右的损失。然而,尽管其中大多数疾病和伤害是可以预防的,但它们仅得到了全球2%的健康资金。

 

So-called non-communicable diseases, or NCDs, include cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases like heart attacks and stroke, and chronic respiratory diseases like asthma. Some, like many types of cancer, still do not have a cure. Yet, we have learnt that millions of lives can be saved if individuals, governments and health organisations take relatively low-cost steps to help people quit smoking, eat healthier diets and exercise more regularly.

所谓的非传染疾病包括癌症、糖尿病、心脏病和中风等心血管疾病以及哮喘等慢性呼吸疾病。与很多类型的癌症一样,其中一些疾病仍未找到治愈良方。然而,我们得知,如果个人、政府和健康组织采取成本相对低廉的措施帮助人们戒烟、健康饮食、规律锻炼,无数人的生命就可以得到挽救。广州医学翻译公司。

 

Such low-cost measures also exist to reduce preventable deaths from injuries, particularly road crashes. Adopting and enforcing seatbelt and helmet requirements, vehicle safety standards, and drunk driving prohibitions all save lives. Roads can also be engineered to reduce the likelihood of crashes. And by improving the availability of data on all injuries and NCDs, local and national governments can better target their policies and resources.

这些低成本措施还可以减少伤害(尤其是道路交通事故伤害)导致的可预防死亡。推出并实施安全带和头盔规定、汽车安全标准以及酒驾禁令都会挽救人们的生命。我们还可以通过改善道路设计,降低交通事故的发生几率。通过让所有伤害和非传染疾病的数据更易获取,地方各级政府和国家级政府可以让它们的政策和资源更有的放矢。

 

Margaret Chan, director-general of the World Health Organisation, is stepping up the fight to prevent these deaths. As part of her push, I have accepted her invitation to serve as the WHO global ambassador for noncommunicable diseases. Our mission is to achieve the UN goals of reducing premature NCD deaths by one-third by 2030, and halving the number of road deaths and injuries by 2020.

世界卫生组织(World Health Organisation)总干事陈冯富珍(Margaret Chan)正加大努力防范这类死亡。作为她的计划的一部分,我接受她的邀请,担任世卫组织非传染疾病全球大使。我们的使命是实现联合国(UN)的目标:到2030年将非传染疾病导致的过早死亡病例减少三分之一,同时到2020年将道路交通事故导致的死亡和受伤数量减半。广州医学翻译公司。

 

Great progress is possible. During my 12 years as mayor of New York City, life expectancy increased by more than three years, far faster than the national average, largely because of our ambitious public health agenda, which included battling smoking and obesity.

我们是有可能取得巨大进展的。在我担任纽约市市长的12年里,预期寿命增加了3岁多,远远快于美国全国平均水平,这主要归功于我们目标远大的公共健康议程,其中包括与吸烟和肥胖作斗争。

 

I am optimistic that we can spread this type of progress from the ground up, partly because I have seen it happen with another major global challenge: climate change. In recent years, local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have led to more ambitious actions by national governments. The historic climate breakthrough in Paris would not have been possible had we not first demonstrated that cities — which account for the large majority of greenhouse gases — are strongly committed to leading by example.

我对这一点感到乐观,即我们能够自下而上地推广这种进展,这在一定程度上是因为我看到我们在另一项巨大的全球挑战上取得过这种进展,这一挑战就是:气候变化。近年来,地方各级政府的减少温室气体排放的行动,带来了国家级政府更雄心勃勃的举措。如果我们没有一开始就展现出,城市(占温室气体排放的大部分)正坚定地致力于作出表率,那么巴黎气候大会上的历史性突破就不可能实现。广州医学翻译公司。

 

Winning the battle against climate change helps us win the battle against many NCDs, and vice versa — because large emitters of greenhouse gases also tend to be large emitters of deadly air pollution. And just as cities have helped spur more national and international action on climate change, they can do the same for NCDs and other preventable causes of death.

赢得对抗气候变化之战有助于我们赢得抗击许多种非传染疾病的战役,反之亦然,因为温室气体排放大国往往也是致命的空气污染的大型排放国。城市帮助推动了更多有关气候变化的全国性和国际性措施,它们也能在非传染疾病以及其他可预防的死因方面做到这点。

 

The goals set by the UN are bold — and could save more than 30m lives by 2030. They are relatively low cost. In fact, many of the most powerful changes are policies that, like banning indoor smoking, have no cost at all.

联合国设定的目标很大胆:到2030年可能挽救逾3000万生命。这一目标的实现成本相对较低。实际上,很多最有力的改革是那些根本没有成本的政策,例如禁止室内吸烟。

 

And they are within reach, because unlike other epidemics, there are proven steps we can take to prevent heart disease, asthma, certain cancers, diabetes and road crashes — steps that some wealthier nations have already taken.

这些政策是可行的,因为与其他流行病不同,我们可以采取已得到证明的措施来预防心脏疾病、哮喘、某些癌症、糖尿病和道路交通事故,一些较富有的国家已采取这些措施。广州医学翻译公司。

 

Now it is our job to ensure that no country is left behind. By working together, we can make the next decade a decisive turning point in the battle against one of the greatest public health challenges of our time.

如今,确保没有落下任何一个国家是我们的任务。通过合作,我们能够让下一个10年成为这一战役的关键转折点,这一战役抗击的是我们这个时代最艰巨的公共健康挑战之一。

 

The writer is the founder of Bloomberg LP and a former mayor of New York City

注:本文作者是彭博(Bloomberg LP)创始人,曾担任纽约市市长。

 

广州医学翻译公司

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