欢迎访问译联翻译公司!  联系邮箱:fanyi@translian.com
当前位置:首页 > 新闻动态 > 译联动态

新闻动态 / NEWS

在线咨询 / ONLINE CHAT



广州地产翻译公司:反恐气氛中的城市设计

作者: 来源: 日期:2016/8/25 8:22:23

Safety obsession creates risk of ‘fortress’ cities

反恐气氛中的城市设计

 

广州地产翻译公司:过去十年,高度戒备的建筑在各地涌现,营造出带有敌意的“堡垒般”环境。当代城市环境如何调和安全与开放?

 

When the new US embassy in London, just along the river Thames from Battersea power station, opens its doors in late 2016, it will be one of the most secure buildings in Britain.

当位于伦敦的美国大使馆新楼于2016年末正式启用时——它位于泰晤士河畔的巴特西发电厂(Battersea Power Station)附近——将是英国保安最严密的建筑之一。广州地产翻译公司。

 

Architects KieranTimberlake trumpet its high-spec, high-security features: “In contrast to high perimeter walls and fences, security requirements are achieved through landscape design — such as the large pond, low garden walls with bench seating, and differences in elevation that create natural, unobtrusive barriers.”

建筑师事务所基兰•廷伯雷克(Kieran Timberlake)夸耀其高规格、高度安全的特色:“保安要求是通过景观设计来实现的,而没有采用高围墙和栅栏——例如宽阔的池塘,低矮的花园围墙搭配长条座椅,以及通过高度差异创建的自然而不突兀的屏障。”

 

The embassy’s own description of the building as “modern, welcoming, safe” sums up the challenge planners have in reconciling the conflicting desires for security and openness in contemporary urban environments.

大使馆自身对这座建筑的描述是“现代、友好、安全”,这概括了设计师们在当代城市环境中调和安全与开放这对相互冲突的目的时面临的挑战。

 

But while the embassy design is a far cry from the more obviously militarised current site in Grosvenor Square, critics say it is emblematic of a broader trend. The past decade, has seen highly defended spaces spring up across towns and cities, creating what some describe as a hostile “fortresslike” environment.

虽然新大使馆的设计与位于格罗夫纳广场(Grosvenor Square)风格明显更加军事化的美国大使馆现址相去甚远,但评论家们称其代表了一股更加广泛的潮流。过去10年来,高度戒备的建筑空间在各个城镇拔地而起,营造出了被某些人描述为“像堡垒一样的”带有敌意的环境。广州地产翻译公司。

 

The new US embassy is “like a Norman castle,” says Stephen Graham, professor of cities and society at Newcastle University. “It even has a moat and is set back, with empty space to protect it from truck bombs or blast,” he adds. “This is the logic of what an antiterrorist city would look like.”

美国大使馆新楼“看起来像一座诺曼式城堡”,英国纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University)研究城市与社会的教授斯蒂芬•格雷厄姆(Stephen Graham)表示。“它甚至有一条护城河,并且布局靠后,留出了空荡荡的空间以防备卡车炸弹或者爆炸,”他补充称。“这种构思体现出了一座反恐城市会有的样子。”

 

Such fortified buildings are one aspect of a trend that has introduced several forms of “defensible space” into the landscape. A public outcry greeted the “anti-homeless” spikes that were spotted fixed into the ground outside a private apartment block in south London’s Southwark Bridge Road last summer.

这种加强防御的建筑是潮流的一个侧面,这股潮流将多种形式的“可防御空间”引入了城市景观。去年夏天,伦敦南部南华桥路(Southwark Bridge Road)一栋私人公寓楼外的地面被发现嵌入了“防范无家可归者的”尖钉,此事激起了强烈的公众抗议。

 

Boris Johnson, London’s mayor, called them “ugly, self-defeating and stupid” and they were later removed.

时任伦敦市长鲍里斯•约翰逊(Boris Johnson)将这些尖钉称为是“丑陋、适得其反和愚蠢的”,随后这些尖钉被移除。广州地产翻译公司。

 

Retailers have courted controversy by installing so-called “Mosquito” alarms, which emit a high-pitched sound heard only by young people and babies, to discourage loitering. In New York, spiked coverings have been attached to fire hydrants to prevent people sitting on them. Other examples include sloped bus shelter seats, park benches you cannot lie down on and the Camden bench, designed to deter skateboarders.

零售商们安装的所谓“蚊子”警报器也很容易招致争议,这种装置通过发出只有年轻人和婴幼儿听得到的高频声音来阻止他们在店内逗留。在纽约,消防栓上被安装了带有尖钉的覆盖物,以防止人们坐在消防栓上。其他例子还包括带有坡度的公车站座椅,让你无法平躺其上的公园长椅,以及坎姆登区(Camden)为了阻止滑板玩家而设计的水泥长凳。

 

The term “defensible space” was coined by the US architect Oscar Newman in the 1970s. This spawned an industry based on the principles of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED), ideas that journeyed across the Atlantic and have a far-reaching influence on urban policy through, for example, the UK police’s initiative, Secured by Design.

“可防御空间”这个词是美国建筑师奥斯卡•纽曼(Oscar Newman)20世纪70年代发明的。这一理念催生了基于通过环境设计预防犯罪(Crime Prevention through Environmental Design,简称CPTED)原则的一个产业,相关创意传播至大西洋彼岸,对城市政策产生了深远影响,英国警方的安全设计(Secured by Design)倡议就是一例。

 

Prof Graham comments: “We are redesigning the city so that anyone who doesn’t move is deemed a threat, which includes someone who is pregnant, who has young kids or a disability. I can’t deny there are attacks and dangers and vulnerabilities, but sometimes those are exaggerated and the terrorist threat becomes a massive obsession.”

格雷厄姆教授评论称:“我们正在重新设计城市,使任何不在移动的人都被看成了威胁,这其中包括孕妇、带有年幼子女的人或者残疾人。我不否认存在恐怖袭击、危险以及安全漏洞,但有些时候这些因素被夸大了,恐怖主义威胁变成了一种让人纠结的东西。” 广州地产翻译公司。

 

Phoebe Boulton Jaggi, a student at the London College of Communication who has researched antisocial street furniture says cities become “more liveable for consumers and less liveable for other people”. While architects may attract support for building defences into potential targets such as the US embassy, critics object to fortress security levels grafted on to other public buildings, including schools, hospitals and housing. These often incorporate features such as high-perimeter fencing, barbed wire and CCTV cameras.

菲比•博尔顿•贾吉(Phoebe Boulton Jaggi)是伦敦传媒学院(London College of Communication)的一名学生,她曾研究反社会的街道公共设施。贾吉称,城市正变得“对消费者更加宜居,对其他人群不那么宜居”。尽管建筑师将防御设计融入潜在袭击目标(如美国大使馆)或许会获得支持,但评论家们反对将堡垒级的保安设施移植到其他公共建筑上,例如学校、医院和住宅区。这类保安设施准往往包括高耸的防护围栏、带刺铁丝网和闭路电视摄像头。

 

Secured by Design has become the template for all new development today,” says Anna Minton, author of Ground Control and reader in architecture at the University of East London. The threat of terrorism has become the “justification for ever-increasing security” as part of the daily environment, she adds.

《地面控制》(Ground Control)一书作者、东伦敦大学(University of East London)建筑学准教授安娜•敏顿(Anna Minton)表示:“安全设计已经成了当今所有新开发项目的基本模板。”她补充称,恐怖主义威胁成了“保安日益升级的理由”,这些设施成为了日常环境的一部分。

 

Secured by Design, wholly-owned by the Association of Chief Police Officers, was formed in 1989. It supports the concept of “designing out crime”, with, for example, specially constructed doors and fencing, which, it says, can reduce burglary by 75 per cent.

安全设计创立于1989年,由英国警察局长协会(British Association of Chief Police Officers)全资所有。该机构支持“用设计预防犯罪”的理念,比如借助特别设计的门和围栏,能将盗窃案减少75%广州地产翻译公司。

 

Security measures can be invisible,” says Jon Cole, Secured by Design’s national operations manager. “If you build in security at the outset, then the building will generally be far more aesthetically pleasing.”

安全设计的全国运营经理乔恩•科尔(Jon Cole)表示,“安保措施可以是无形的。如果你从一开始就在建筑中融入安保设计,那么这种建筑在外形上通常会更加美观。”

 

There has been something of a reaction to hyper-securitised, exclusive city spaces. London’s Oxford Circus is an example of the European idea of “shared space”, which focuses on improving traffic safety through the removal of barriers, roundabouts and even traffic lights.

安保措施过于严格而又排外的城市空间激起了某些反应。伦敦的牛津圆环(Oxford Circus)就是一个体现欧洲“共享空间”理念的例子。为了提高交通安全性,有关部门在这里移除障碍物、环形交叉口甚至交通信号灯。

 

In the US, organisations such as San Francisco Rebar, a landscape design group, are influencing the debate on public space. Meanwhile, in Hamburg, designer Oliver Schau has used yellow drainage pipes to create impromptu “guerrilla seating” in urban areas.

 

在美国,旧金山的景观设计机构Rebar等组织正在对有关公共空间的辩论产生影响。与此同时,在汉堡,设计师奥利弗•绍(Oliver Schau)利用黄色排水管在城区即兴创造出了“游击座椅”。广州地产翻译公司。

 

In Canada, RainCity Housing, an independent charity that helps the homeless, installed a roofed bench in the city to provide shelter to street sleepers, in contrast to the anti-homeless spikes that have made their appearance on London’s streets.

在加拿大,旨在帮助无家可归者的独立慈善组织雨城住房(RainCity Housing)在市区安装了带有顶棚的长椅,为露宿街头者提供庇护。这与伦敦街头曾经出现的防备无家可归者的尖钉形成了鲜明对比。

 

Prof Graham thinks the debate will intensify. “Raising awareness of what is going on is a challenge,” he says. “It is such a massive thing for people to get their heads round.”

格雷厄姆教授认为,相关辩论将会变得更加激烈。“提高公众对当前状况的认识是一项挑战,”他表示。“这是一个需要人们大费脑筋才能理解的宏大问题。”

 

广州地产翻译公司

 

本文由:译联广州翻译公司免费发布:供学习参考,禁止商用与转载。