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中英文翻译中习语要怎么处理

作者:译联翻译 来源: 日期:2020/12/29 16:14:26

中英文翻译方面,会遇到很多习语的问题,习语是民族语言中的精华。它短小精悍、寓意深刻,具有浓郁的民族文化特色。英语习语可包括成语、谚语、俗语、俚语等,其结构既有短语、又有分句、还有句子。

在中英文翻译中,把英语习语译成中文首先要正确理解其含义,认识其文化特点,注意英汉习语之间的异同,然后运用正确的方法翻译。在准确地传达原习语的意义的同时,还应充分考虑到原文的浓郁民族风格-不同的文化背景、不同的思维方式、不同的文法和表达习惯。

一、英汉习语比较

从形和义的角度来看,英汉习语的异同大体表现在以下四个方面:

A.英汉习语形义全同,这类习语为数少,例如:

Barking dogs do not bite.吠犬不咬人。

Who is contented, enjoys.知足者常乐。

Misfortunes never come singly.祸不单行。

It is harder to change human nature than to change rivers and mountains.江山难改,本性难移。

Like father, like son.有其父必有其子。

B.习语形义基本相同,这类习语比上面一类在数量上要多些,例如:

as light as a feather(or as thistle-down)

轻如鸿毛

to take a load off one's mind如释重负

to run in the same groove; to cut from the same cloth.如出一辙

to make a beast of oneself形同禽兽

He that hath been bitten by a serpent is afraid of a rope.一朝被蛇咬,十年怕草绳。

Shallow streams make most din.水深不响,水响不深。

Money makes the mare go.有钱能使鬼推磨。

Reckless youth makes rueful age.少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。

C.英汉习语形似义异,这类习语相当多,例如:

When a dog is drowning every one offers him drink.(狗若落水人人救,强调人人伸出援

之手。)

救了落水狗,反咬你一口(强调好心得不到好报)

Ignorance of the law is no excuse of breaking it.(法盲犯法不可恕,强调严格执行法律。)

不知者无罪(强调网开一面)

Strike while the iron is hot (强调"抓住时机")趁热打铁(着重"抓紧行动")

Lock the stable-door after the horse is stolen.(强调为时已晚。)亡羊补牢(强调受到损失后想法弥补,以免再受损失。)

D.英汉习语形异义似,例如:

A word spoken is past recalling.一言既出,驷马难追。Great boast, small roast.干打雷,不下雨。

Take not a musket to kill a butterfly.杀鸡焉用宰牛刀。as dumb as an oyster守口如瓶

to hit someone below the belt/to stab someone in the back暗箭伤人

as weak as water弱不禁风

E.英汉习语形义完全不同,例如:

cast one's bread upon the waters不期望报答所作之事

keep the wolf from the door 免于饥饿,勉强度日

make one's blood freeze令人恐惧

have bats in the belfry头脑有点古怪

see the sun活着

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