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广州贸易翻译公司:美欧应接受世贸组织裁决

作者: 来源: 日期:2016/12/14 8:46:52

Leader_China’s push for status as a market economy

FT社评:美欧应接受世贸组织裁决

 

广州贸易翻译公司:如果WTO在中国市场经济地位诉讼中裁定中国胜诉,美欧应迅速接受裁决,以免破坏基于规则的多边贸易体制。

 

Fifteen years ago on Sunday, China became a full-fledged participant in the global economy by acceding to the World Trade Organisation. As if to underline the often fractious experience since, an agreement made by the WTO’s other members when China joined is coming back to bite them.

整整15年前,即20011211日,中国正式加入了世界贸易组织(WTO),成为全球经济的完全参与者。仿佛是为了突出自那以来的种种不愉快经历,WTO其他成员在中国入世时达成的协议正在反过来使他们陷入不利地位。广州贸易翻译公司。

 

Beijing is marking the anniversary by launching a WTO case against the US and EU. It charges Brussels and Washington with failure to honour a pledge in China’s 2001 WTO accession agreement that it would by now be regarded as a “market economy”.

北京方面纪念入世15周年的方式是在WTO起诉美国和欧盟。中方指责布鲁塞尔和华盛顿未能兑现2001年《中国加入WTO议定书》中的承诺,即中国在15年后的今天应该被视为“市场经济”。

 

This is a finely balanced question, and it is easy to see the EU and US’s point. China is not a free market on any reasonable definition. Cheap Chinese imports from heavily subsidised industries, notably steel, have aroused anger worldwide, and featured heavily in Donald Trump’s election campaign. Mr Trump has unequivocally said China is not a market economy. Despite this, Beijing has a strong case at the WTO, so Brussels and Washington need to be prepared to accept defeat and find other ways to address distorted trade.

这是一个需要细腻拿捏的问题,而且很容易看到欧盟和美国的理由。按照任何合理定义,中国都并非一个自由市场。来自获得大量补贴行业(尤其是钢铁行业)的廉价中国产品,已经在世界各地引发愤怒,还被唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)拿来在竞选活动中大做文章。特朗普已明确表示,中国不是市场经济。尽管如此,北京方面在WTO提起的诉讼胜算很大,因此,布鲁塞尔和华盛顿需要准备接受败诉,然后寻找其他方法来解决贸易扭曲问题。广州贸易翻译公司。

 

Giving a trading partner “market economy status” (MES) implies accepting that its domestic prices are largely set by open competition rather than the government. Crucially, in trade law it is easier to impose antidumping and countervailing duties against imports from a non-market economy. The aggrieved importing nation can pick an “analogue country” with which to make price comparisons rather than having to use data from the trading partner.

给予贸易伙伴“市场经济地位”(MES)意味着,接受其国内价格基本上由公开竞争(而非政府)决定。至关重要的是,根据贸易法律,对来自非市场经济体的进口商品征收反倾销和反补贴关税更加容易。不满的进口国可以选择一个“替代国”进行价格比较,而不必使用来自出口国的数据。

 

China’s case will hinge not on the current facts about its economy but on a clause in its 2001 accession agreement that seems to grant automatic MES after a 15-year period. The weight of legal opinion holds that China’s case is valid. But as the deadline has approached, so some governments and lawyers have rehearsed a counter-argumentthat the deal continues to allow China’s trading partners the right to grant MES or not according to their own laws.

中国的诉讼理由将不会基于其经济的当前事实,而是基于2001年《中国加入WTO议定书》中的一个条款,该条款似乎规定在15年后自动授予中国市场经济地位。从多数法律观点看,中国的主张是成立的。但随着最后期限的临近,一些政府和律师找到了反驳依据,即该协议继续授权贸易伙伴按照它们自己的法律决定是否授予中国市场经济地位。

 

If the WTO rules China’s way, which in any case will take a year or two to happen, Brussels and Washington should rapidly comply. Otherwise they risk undermining the rules-based multilateral trading system.

如果WTO裁定中国胜诉——无论如何都需要一、两年时间——布鲁塞尔和华盛顿应该快速表示遵从。否则,他们可能破坏基于规则的多边贸易体制。广州贸易翻译公司。

 

Far better than pinning everything on a WTO case would have been for the EU or US to have used MES as a bargaining chip to strike a trade deal gaining better access to the Chinese market — as have, for example, Australia and South Africa. Other options involve reforming anti-dumping law to make it better fit reality. The EU has recently announced plans to remove the distinction between market and non-market economies in its trade law, but its current proposal will give it far too much leeway to pick what data it wants and slap on whatever duties it likes.

相比把一切都押注于一场WTO诉讼,对欧盟或美国来说好得多的做法是利用市场经济地位作为讨价还价的筹码,达成中国市场更优惠准入的贸易协定——就像澳大利亚和南非所做的。在任何情况下,布罗塞尔和华盛顿都不得就这么忽视《中国加入WTO议定书》以及WTO据此作出的任何裁决。欧美官员肯定非常恼火,因为他们不得不处理15年前起草的文件现在所冒出的问题,当时各方预计中国会在大得多的程度上开放国内经济,远超中国实际开放程度。但这是没办法的。

 

In any case, Brussels and Washington must not simply ignore the agreement and any WTO rulings arising from it. It must be highly irritating for European and US officials to have to deal with problems arising now from documents drafted 15 years ago, at a time when China was expected to have liberalised its domestic economy much more than it actually has. So be it.

其他选择涉及改革反倾销法,使其更好适应现实。欧盟最近宣布计划消除其贸易法律中市场经济与非市场经济之间的区别,但欧盟当前提案将令其有太多自由度来选择自己想要的数据,征收自己想要征收的无论什么关税。

 

The absorption of such a rising giant as China into the world economy has been eased by the operation of a functioning system of global trade law under the WTO. It would be a retrograde step for the US and EU, the organisation’s two largest members, to ignore a clear commitment. If the WTO rules that China’s accession agreement automatically accords it the status of a market economy, Brussels and Washington should accept without delay.

得益于世贸组织体系下有效运转的全球贸易法律体制,世界经济吸收中国这个不断崛起的巨人的过程相对轻松。世贸组织两大成员美国和欧盟若忽视明确承诺,将是一个倒退。如果世贸组织裁定中国的入世协定自动赋予其市场经济地位,布鲁塞尔和华盛顿应毫不迟疑地接受它。

 

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