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作者: 来源: 日期:2016/10/28 9:10:11

Russia’s gas pipeline threatens European unity





In August, subsidiaries of several western companies  — Eon, Engie, OMV, Shell and Wintershall — decided not to participate in Gazprom’s Nord Stream 2. The consortium, led by the Russian state-owned gas monopoly, was established to design, finance, build and operate two additional strings of the undersea gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

今年8月,几家西方公司(EonEngieOMV、壳牌(Shell)和德国温特沙尔公司(Wintershall))的子公司决定不参与俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司(Gazprom)的北溪-2 (Nord Stream 2)项目。由这家俄罗斯国有天然气寡头牵头的这个财团的设立,是为了俄罗斯与德国之间两条新的海底天然气管道的设计、融资、建设和运营。广州俄语翻译公司。


The companies also withdrew their application for merger approval, submitted to the Polish competition protection authority in December. In the view of the Polish government, such a step showed that they had no counter-arguments to the regulator’s concerns about the likely effect of the project on competition in the Polish and EU gas markets.



Together with eight other EU member states (the Czech Republic, Estonia, Croatia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia), and with the tacit support of a couple of others, Poland has opposed Nord Stream 2 since it was first announced by Gazprom in 2015. It undermines European solidarity and the Energy Union, the EU’s flagship project.

自从俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司于2015年首次宣布北溪-2项目以来,在一些国家的默许支持下,波兰与其他8个欧盟成员国(捷克、爱沙尼亚、克罗地亚、匈牙利、立陶宛、拉脱维亚、罗马尼亚和斯洛伐克)一道反对该项目。它破坏了欧洲的团结和欧盟的旗舰项目能源联盟(Energy Union)。广州俄语翻译公司。


The economic arguments for Nord Stream 2 were always questionable, especially considering overcapacity on existing supply transit routes from Russia to the EU. And given Europe’s considerable dependence on Russian gas and the damage the project would cause to the Ukrainian economy (which is subsidised by the EU), the political motivations behind it seemed obvious.



With the withdrawal of the western companies, the case against Nord Stream 2 looks even more powerful. A project that previously appeared merely controversial now looks like a Trojan horse capable of destabilising the economy and poisoning political relations inside the EU.



EU institutions that should make the core principles and unity of the bloc their priority have not taken a firm stand on Nord Stream 2. And suggestions from Jean-Claude Juncker, president of the European Commission, that a “legal solution” could be found have yet to amount to anything.

应当把欧盟核心原则及团结作为优先考虑的欧盟机构,在北溪-2项目上没有采取坚定立场。欧盟委员会(European Commission)主席让-克洛德•容克(Jean-Claude Juncker)认为,可以找到“合法解决方案”,但目前什么结果都没有。


This ambiguous position is difficult to explain, especially when one considers, on the one hand, the EU sanctions against Russia imposed after the illegal annexation of Crimea and, on the other, the fact that Gazprom is owned by the Russian state. By supporting Nord Stream 2, the EU in effect gives succour to a regime whose aggression it seeks to punish through sanctions. This contradiction is unsustainable.



The EU cannot continue to offer financial support to Ukraine, maintain sanctions against Russia and call for a resilient energy union while at the same time collaborating on Nord Stream 2 with Gazprom.



This is why Poland and other central and eastern European member states have called on the commission to act as a guardian of EU treaties and to demand that Nord Stream 2, including its offshore sections, conform in full with EU law.



The commission should also guarantee that the most vulnerable member states are protected from an external monopoly seeking to apply political pressure on them. It has the power, if not to freeze the project completely, then at least to limit its disruptive impact on the European gas market and on the security of supply policies.



Nord Stream 2 is a test of European unity and of the credibility of EU institutions. Poland is determined to defend the bloc’s fundamental principles, even if that might mean appealing to the Court of Justice of the EU.

北溪-2项目是对欧洲团结以及欧盟机构可信性的考验。波兰决定维护欧盟的基本原则,即便这可能意味着向欧洲法院(Court of Justice)上诉。


Support for the project by any member state or a passive approach by the commission that results in preferential treatment being given to Nord Stream 2 — for instance, exemption from the market rules enshrined in the so-called third package of legislation may be subject to legal challenge by Poland or other countries, in the court if need be. If EU institutions are unclear as to the scope of their competences, Poland and its partners are ready to provide clarity in the courts.

任何一个欧盟成员国支持该项目,或者欧盟委员会采取被动策略导致向北溪-2项目提供优惠待遇(例如可不遵守关于能源市场的所谓第三套立法(third package of legislation)规定的市场规则),都可能受到波兰或其他国家的法律挑战,如果需要可能对簿公堂。如果欧盟机构对其职权范围含糊不清的话,那么波兰及其伙伴准备赴法庭明确。


Promoting the economic interests of certain countries at the expense of the security and stability of others is no way for the EU to escape the crisis it finds itself in. Nor is it likely to imbue disillusioned citizens with renewed faith in European institutions.



Doing that requires abandoning the pursuit of short-term individual gain in the interests of the EU as a whole. The Nord Stream 2 affair should not be allowed to stand as an example of the EU turning a blind eye.



We should instead be able to hold it up as proof that the EU will act when needed to defend the rules on which it was founded.



The writer is Poland’s minister for European affairs