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广州俄语翻译公司:俄罗斯的“远东赠地运动”

作者: 来源: 日期:2016/9/20 9:11:46

广州俄语翻译公司:Russia’s free land offer aims to rekindle pioneering spirit and inspire new colonies

俄罗斯的“远东赠地运动”

 

广州俄语翻译公司:为吸引人们在人烟稀少的远东地区定居,俄罗斯政府重启了一项古老的赠地政策,然而这场土地运动的前景却并不被看好。

 

Anton Nekhoroshkov had driven almost five hours to take possession of his property: a piece of land the government gave him free under a programme to boost settlement of Russia’s thinly populated Far East region.

安东•涅霍罗什科夫(Anton Nekhoroshkov)驱车近5个小时才拥有了自己的地产:根据俄罗斯政府出台的旨在吸引人们在人烟稀少的远东地区定居的项目,他免费得到了一块地。广州俄语翻译公司。

 

But after a few steps on to his plot, the young businessman from Vladivostok beat a hasty retreat. The ground was marshy, and his white golf shoes were soaked.

但这位来自东部港口城市符拉迪沃斯托克(Vladivostok)的年轻商人在自己的土地上走了几步之后就匆忙离开了。由于地面湿软,他的白色高尔夫球鞋全被浸湿了。

 

Russia’s Far East, a region two-thirds the size of China, has a population of only 6m, while more than 100m live in the Chinese provinces just across the border.

俄罗斯远东地区的面积相当于中国的三分之二,只有大约600万人口,而接壤的几个中国省份则居住着1亿多人口。

 

Launched in July, the free land programme is a time-tested response to this imbalance. The imperial Russian state “sought to settle its peripheral regions with a predominantly Slav and agricultural population in order to secure control over them and promote economic development”, writes David Moon, a historian specialising in peasants in the Russian empire.

这个免费土地项目是在今年7月推出的对上述失衡问题的回应,这种措施经过了历史的检验。研究俄罗斯帝国时期农民生活的历史学家戴维•穆恩(David Moon)写道,早先,俄罗斯帝国“曾寻求推动斯拉夫人和农业人口定居其边疆地区,以控制这些地区并促进经济发展”。广州俄语翻译公司。

 

The policy was a huge success under Pyotr Stolypin, a prime minister whose land reform programme triggered the migration of millions of peasants from European Russia to Siberia in the years before the first world war.

在一战爆发前的几年里,该政策取得了巨大成功,时任首相彼得•斯托雷平(Pyotr Stolypin)的土地改革促使数百万农民从位于欧洲大陆上的俄罗斯国土迁移至西伯利亚。

 

More than a century later, some Russians are keen to follow their path. “I want to come out here, where our ancestors colonised the land,” says Yuri Bugaev, a Cossack from St Petersburg, who has founded a movement to help people claim the free one-hectare plots.

一个多世纪之后,一些俄罗斯人渴望追寻他们的足迹。来自圣彼得堡的哥萨克人尤里•贝加夫(Yuri Bugaev)表示:“我想走进祖先曾经殖民过的这块土地。”他发起了一项运动,旨在帮助人们申请免费的1公顷土地。贝加夫戴着传统的哥萨克皮帽,手里拿着刀和皮鞭,穿行在荒野之间考察政府提供的免费土地,试图鼓励其他人加入进来。

 

Still, most experts, and even those interested in taking up the free land, have low expectations for the revival of the land giveaway.

然而,大多数专家、甚至那些有意获得免费土地的人们对重新实施这种土地政策不抱多大希望。俄罗斯总统国民经济和公共管理学院(RANEPA)的经济地理学专家塔季扬娜•米哈伊洛娃(Tatiana Mikhailova)表示:“不同在于,现代俄罗斯不再是一个农业经济体。” 广州俄语翻译公司。

 

Mr Nekhoroshkov is a case in point. The 27-year-old small trader chose his plot from an online map for what seemed like a promising roadside location, in a corner of the Primorye region near the Chinese border. “I will open a shop where tourists and truck drivers coming from China can buy provisions,” he said when signing the deed at the local government offices last Tuesday.

涅霍罗什科夫就是一个很好的例子。这位27岁的小商人从在线地图上选择了看起来有望处于公路边的土地,这块土地位于靠近中国边境的滨海(Primorye)地区的一个角落。最近他在当地政府办公室签约的时候表示:“我将会开一家商店,这样来自中国的游客和卡车司机们就能在这里购买物品。”

 

Even Mr Nekhoroshkov’s modest vision might be difficult to realise. After discovering that he had been given a piece of swamp and that the road to China was a gravel track with almost no traffic, the young man confessed he had “no immediate plans” for construction.

在兴凯斯基区(Khankaisky),涅霍罗什科夫是第7个接受免费土地的人。据当地政府表示,兴凯斯基是免费土地项目的9个试验区之一。

 

That is not to say there are not opportunities in agriculture in the Far East. The rouble’s fall against the dollar in 2014 has given Russia’s industry a boost. Meat and oil seeds producers have made big investments, and Russian agricultural exports are on the rise. The country’s agricultural trade balance with China swung from a deficit into a surplus earlier this year.

即便是涅霍罗什科夫并不远大的愿景也可能难以实现。在发现给予自己的土地是一片沼泽地,而且通往中国的道路还是几乎没人走的石子路的时候,这位年轻人坦承,他眼下没有任何“建筑计划”。广州俄语翻译公司。

 

In Primorye, the effect is palpable. Large tracts of land that used to lie fallow are now soya bean fields, many rented and worked by Chinese farmers. Chinese investors have also rehabilitated former collective rice-planting areas near Lake Khanka neglected since the end of the Soviet Union.

这并不是说远东农业没有机遇。2014年卢布对美元贬值推动了俄罗斯农业工业的发展。肉类和油籽生产商大举投资,俄罗斯农业出口增长。今年早些时候,俄罗斯与中国的农业贸易从逆差转为顺差。

 

Martin Tate, a farmer from New Zealand who is married to a Russian and has an agricultural business in Primorye, is bullish.

在滨海地区,效果非常明显。大片曾经荒芜的土地现在种上了大豆,其中许多是由中国农民租种的。中国投资者还复垦了兴凯湖(Lake Khanka)附近曾经的大米集体种植区——自苏联解体以后,兴凯湖一直遭到忽视。

 

This area is located at the same latitude . . . as southern Minnesota and northern Iowa, the big grain-growing areas in the US. It has a similar climate, and is great for growing a corn/soyabean rotation, same as is practised in the US Midwest,” he says.

来自新西兰的农民马丁•泰特(Martin Tate)非常乐观。他娶了一位俄罗斯姑娘,并在滨海地区经营着一家农业企业。他说:“该地区与美国大型粮食产区——明尼苏达州南部和爱荷华北部地区处于相同纬度。该地区有着类似的气候,非常适合玉米大豆轮植,和美国中西部的情况一样。” 广州俄语翻译公司。

 

The proximity to China offers big opportunities, with the nearest customs point earmarked for an expansion. “There is a renaissance of arable farming going on in the Russian Far East,” says Mr Tate, adding that there is “still a lot to be developed”.

与中国毗邻提供了巨大的机遇,最近的海关检查站已决定扩建为6条通道——其中两条是生鲜产品专用通道。泰特表示:“俄罗斯远东地区的耕种正在复兴。”他补充称,“还有大量地区有待开发。”

 

But participants in Moscow’s land programme do not seem well-placed to cash in.

但俄罗斯政府免费土地项目的参与者似乎还没有获利机会。

 

By now, all more or less attractive land plots are controlled by someone. I highly doubt any good land plots will be offered within the framework of the programme,” says Andrey Sizov, managing director at SovEcon, an agriculture consultancy.

农业咨询公司SovEcon的董事总经理安德雷•西佐夫(Andrey Sizov)表示:“到如今,多少有些吸引力的土地都被人占了。我严重怀疑在这个项目的框架下还会有好的土地。”

 

Even if the potential pioneers find good land, one hectare is far too little. Mr Sizov puts the minimum size for a viable farm at 500 hectares.

即便潜在拓荒者发现了好地,1公顷也太少了。西佐夫认为建设一个农场最少需要500公顷。广州俄语翻译公司。

 

Aware of this, Mr Bugaev has made it his mission to find Russians willing to pool agricultural holdings.

贝加夫显然意识到了这一点,因此把找到愿意把自己名下的农业土地汇聚起来的俄罗斯人作为自己的使命。他说:“我们将向养老金领取者、体弱者以及其他无法利用这块地但拥有权利的人介绍这个项目。我们可以以他们的名义集体申请相邻地块,并重新把它们分配给其他需要这些地的人。”

 

His quest has even led him to a secluded colony of Old Believers, a Russian Orthodox sect whose members settled in the Siberian borderlands and whose ancestors fled persecution in Russia.

他积极探索,甚至进入滨海边区最偏远地区,前往旧礼正教徒(Old Believers)与世隔绝的聚居地。旧礼正教是俄罗斯东正教的分支,其成员居住在西伯利亚边境地区。

 

There will be several hundred from Latvia, and there will be up to 1,500 from Bolivia,” he predicts.

与这些人的交谈使得贝加夫扩大了他的人脉。他现在希望从旧礼正教徒聚居区——他们的祖先当年是为了逃避俄罗斯的迫害而定居于此的——招募定居者。他预测称:“将会有数百人来自拉脱维亚,来自玻利维亚的最多可有1500人。”

 

广州俄语翻译公司

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